1 State / ExtraState (Kelvin)
Extra-state is a condition that beyond the state. It is a condition/ site with multiple or overlapping sovereignty, where the jurisdictions of different nations collide. It usually means for the administrative authority that comparable to that of the state that are international, intergovernmental, or nongovernmental. It takes place outside the boundaries of the state recognized by the international community. In extra-state, the sovereignty is ambiguous and the regulation there is not the same as the national regulation. It is the “space beyond the reach of state jurisdictions” according to Easterling. E.g. Free Zone
State is the nation or territory with an organized community under one government. E.g. Germany, Italy
2 Logistics / Infrastructure (Fan)
Logistics is the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, materials, and equipment; as well as intangible items, such as time and information.
The term logistics originated in the military, referring to the movement of equipment and supplies to troops in the field.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems which is basic, underlying framework or features serving a country, city or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. In general, it is defined as the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living condition. In developing countries, the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries represent limitations to economic growth.
3 Territory (Nadiah)
‘Territory’ was derived from Latin territorium, from terra ‘land’. The word originally denoted the district surrounding and under the jurisdiction of a town or city, specifically a Roman or provincial city.
An area of land under the control of a ruler or state, in which one has certain rights or for which one has responsibility with regard to the state – e.g. The UN is sending aid to the occupied territories.
It could also be an area of land that is officially part of a country but does not have the status of a state or province – e.g. US territories and possessions.
4 Sovereignty / Autonomy (Mike)
Sovereignty is the right and power for a State to govern itself with supreme authority. Complete freedom from external control or influence and total control of law or policy would describe absolute sovereignty but in reality it exists as degrees of absoluteness. International law, policies and actions of neighbouring states, cooperation and respect of the populace, means of enforcement and resources to enact policy are factors that might limit sovereignty. Democracy is based on the concept of popular sovereignty where the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people through their elected representatives, who are the source of all political power.
Autonomy is granted by a central authority, whereas sovereignty is the central authority. Autonomy is usually applied to regions or territories with a population of people who wish to assert their independence from the larger central authority.
5 Worker / Labour (force) (Beatriz)
Worker is usually applied to someone who is employed by a company or individual, often with a contract, and works on tasks that require at least some specific knowledge. They can also be appointed as supervisors to others less qualified (such as labourers).
Labourer is a term that applies to someone who works, usually temporarily, with no necessary knowledge on the tasks given and generally within physical tasks.
5b Migrant / Refugee / Internationally Displaced Person (Nathan)
6 Geopolitics / Geoeconomics (ming)
Geopolitics refers to the subject of current knowledge in historical geography and contain international relations. It is also a global dimension of architecture and urbanism.It is a way to study the political effects of geography. The new discipline was propelled by the effects of industrialization and social evolution.Geopolitics also considered the ways in agriculture, industry, resource extraction, military power, and the new technological possibilities of transportation and communication influenced the international system of states and their territorial configuration.With the rise of technological modernism and economic planning, “infrastructure”—were recognized as central to the development of nations.In short, geopolitics was not just determined by physical geography, it was also a matter of design.
Tsing Ma Bridge, gateway to Hong Kong
Geo-economics is a combination of international economic and political factors relating to or influencing a nation or region. About the study of trade policy, investment policy, economic and financial sanctions, financial and monetary policy, energy and commodities, aid and cyber. Geo-economics have become highly relevant for foreign policy practices and national security strategies. It is focused on geographical features that are inherent in foreign policy and international relations. A deep integration of global trade links and financial markets has made geo-economic tools more powerful.
Why Your Company Needs a Foreign Policy, John Chipman (2016)
8 Fulfillment Centre / Factory / Warehouse (Celene) (Miti)
Fulfillment Center is the place sellers send merchandise to, and the outsourced provider ships it to customers for them. Fulfillment centers enable ecommerce merchants to outsource warehousing and shipping. This relieves online business of the necessary physical space to store all products, which is beneficial for merchants without the capacity to directly manage inventory. Sellers send merchandise to the fulfillment center, and the outsourced provider ships it to customers for them.
- Factory is a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are manufactured and materials processed by using machines, such as a car/ textile factory. Many factories incorporate warehouse on-site to house finished goods, raw
- materials or assembly equipment needed for manufacturing. These sites are often located in industrial areas near major roadways and rail lines with optimized transportation of goods.
Warehouses are commercial buildings prioritized for storing raw materials and manufactured goods. Warehouse are capable of storing a variety of goods, from finished products to spare parts, packing materials and equipment required for product assembly.
9 Border / Frontier (Bill)
Geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities. Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called boundary delimitation.
Imposed on the world through human agency and agreement. It may follow a river or mountain range, but such a feature does not automatically define the political border, even though it may be a major physical barrier, obstacles or gate to cross.
Geographical features that present natural obstacles to communication and transport. Existing political borders are often a formalization of such historical, natural obstacles or feature such as Oceans, Rivers, Lakes, Forests and Mountain ranges.
10 Customs Zone (Jay)
A customs area is an area designated for storage of commercial goods that have not cleared border controls for customs purposes. … For the purpose of customs duties, goods within the customs area are treated as being outside the country.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country. … All authorized ports are recognized customs areas.
11 Neoliberalism (Luis)
Neoliberalism is an economic based ideology (although with heavy social implications) based on the idea of the free market and laissez-faire(let do) economics that tends to policy models that transfer the control of economic factors from the public sector to the private sector (ei. privatization, austerity, deregulation, free trade). It favours a ‘wild’ and deregularised economy and is often associated with mature capitalism, the idea of the ‘extra-state’ and the loss of power of the nation-states.
Andrzej Krauze,British-polish cartoonist